High FODMAP Foods to Avoid
If you are following the Low-FODMAP diet, you will want to avoid all FODMAPs. They include: fructans, galacto-oligosaccharides, lactose, excess fructose and polyols. If you have already taken hydrogen breath tests and know you can either completely absorb fructose or lactose, you do not have to negate either from your diet, but can as an extra precaution during the elimination phase.
- Excess Free Fructose = EFF
- High-Polyol Foods = HPF
- High-Lactose Foods = HLF
Apples or applesauce, apricots, Asian pears, blackberries, boysenberries, cherries, figs, mangoes, nectarines, peaches, pears, persimmon, plums, prunes, tamarillo, watermelon, white peaches
- EFF – Apples, Asian pears, boysenberries, cherries, figs, mangoes, pears, tamarillo, watermelon
- HPF – Apples, apricots, Asian pears, blackberries, nectarines, peaches, pears, plums, prunes, watermelon
Artichokes (all), asparagus, cauliflower, garlic, leeks, mushrooms, onions (all onions including onion powder), scallions (only the green tips), shallots, snow peas, sugar snap peas, legume beans (eg. baked beans, kidney beans, bortolotti beans), lentils, chickpeas.
- EFF – Artichokes, asparagus, sugar snap peas
- HPF – Cauliflower, mushrooms, snow peas
*Learn more about all legumes and serving sizes by reading this post Low-FODMAP Servings for Legumes
If you do not malabsorb lactose then you do not need to restrict these foods. Ask your dietitian about testing for lactose malabsorption.
All HLF – Ice cream, regular milk, goat’s or sheep’s milk, yogurt (made from cow, goat or sheep’s milk), milk powder (milk solids), pudding, evaporated milk, sweetened condensed milk and soft cheeses (amounts greater than 1/2 C) -cottage cheese, cream cheese, creme fraiche, mascarpone, ricotta.
BREADS, COOKIES, CAKES, FLOURS, GRAINS
All breads that are not gluten-free, bread crumbs, cookies, cakes, croissants, muffins, pastries containing wheat and rye. Barley, bulgur, chickpea flour (in small amounts only), couscous, durum, lentil flour (in small amounts), multigrain flour, pea flour (in small amounts), rye, semolina, soy flour (in small amounts), triticale, wheat bran, wheat flour, wheat germ. Stay away from sourdough made with high FODMAP flours (such as wheat and rye).
Noodles, pasta, gnocchi. Wheat-based and multi-grain breakfast cereals, muesli.
Stay clear of meats that contain HIGH FODMAP ingredients like onion powders, garlic, dehydrated powders and bread crumbs, or high amounts of FODMAP cheese and dried fruits. Many times marinades, sauces/gravies when prepared with meats contain HIGH FODMAPs.
Pistachios, cashews – all other nuts and seeds are fair game. Almonds (up to 10), Hazelnuts (up to 10), one handful of all other nuts and seeds or 2 TB of nut or seed butters.
Agave nectar, honey, sugar alcohols like sorbitol, mannitol, maltitol and xylitol; high fructose corn syrup, corn syrup solids, fructose, pear juice, fruit juice concentrate.
- EFF – Agave nectar, high-fructose corn syrup, fructose, fruit juice concentrate, pear juice, honey
- HPF – sorbitol, mannitol, maltitol and xylitol, polydextrose, isomalt
Chutneys, gravies made with onion, chicken, vegetable and beef stock bouillon cubes, dressings, sauces, brand-made relishes. Oil-based sauces and condiments (such as salad dressings and aioli) may contain high FODMAP ingredients such as garlic.
- More than a 1/2 C of any fruit juice; apple, pear, tropical and mango juices; orange 98% reconstituted or 99% blend
- Chicory-based coffee substitutes; espresso decaf or regular with cow’s or soy milk, instant decaf or regular with cow’s or soy milk
- Fennel tea, chamomile tea, chai tea (strong; weak with added soy milk is MODERATE), herbal tea (strong; weak is MODERATE), oolong tea (strong or weak).
- Apple, raspberry, orange cordials
- Coconut water 250 ml (100ml is LOW)
- Carob powder
- Rum, sweet wine
DIET, SUGAR FREE, LOW CARB
All HPF – Label warnings that say “Excess consumption may have a laxative effect.” Avoid sorbitol, mannitol, maltitol, xylitol, polydextrose, isomalt or any gums, mints, candy, desserts, and other products containing polyol additives as artificial sweeteners.